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Strategies: Listening to a Lecture

When a professor is giving an example for a teaching point and he or she wants to compare or contrast, they often use signal words.  To improve your listening skills, become familiar with the list below.

Words or Phrases Used to Compare

In addition, the neighboring countries in Africa also suffered from the drought.

Some businesses in Japan hold to traditional methods for doing business.  Likewise, some businesses in Korea as well hold to traditional practices for doing business.

Similar to Oregon, Alaska, Montana, New Hampshire, and Delaware have chosen not to impose a sales tax on their residents.

Words or Phrases Used to Contrast

Oregon does not impose a sales tax.  On the other hand, California requires its residents to pay six percent sales tax.

In contrast to the countries in Africa that are suffering from drought, countries in South America are under flood warning.

Unlike California, Oregon does not have a statewide sales tax.

Words or Phrases Used to Signal Examples

There are a number of states that do not impose a sales tax; for instance, Oregon and Alaska are two states that do not add a sales tax on items that are sold.

This year a number of states have suffered from droughts.  For example, both California and Texas have experience water shortage in the past three years.

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